curso oracle Tuning Overview (4)

Wilmer Barrios | domingo, junio 21, 2009 | |

  1. Tuning Overview
    1. List the roles associated with the database tuning process
    2. The DBA, the application developer, management, the system administrator, the network administrator.

    3. Define the steps associated with the tunning process
    4. Considered on the ROI (Return on Investment) outline here are the tunning recommendation in order:

        1. Do a proper logical design: In practice this often means more tables with fewer rows per table. In turn, this means the capability for faster searching. The fewer rows that are stored and must be searched through, regardless of the search techinque, the quicker you'll be able to find what you're looking for.
        2. Do a proper physical design : Separate the datafiles (tablespaces ) into different disks to avoid I/O contention , use striping.
        3. Redesign if necessary Sometimes the best way to correct the database without extensive tuning efforts is a re-analysis and redesign. Consider redesign when the initial design was hurried, or when multiple databases need to be integrated.
        4. Write Efficient Application Code: If some SQL code uses an inefficient seach or sort routine, despite the best efforts of the Oracle optimizer, the application will run slowly.
        5. Rewrite code if necessary: If application code efficiency comes into question and resource and management permit , re-analyze and re-write the code.
        6. Tune the database memory structures Oracle can offer substantial improvments through the tuning of its database buffer cache. Also the shared pool caches SQL code via the library cache component and caches the data dictonary component through ,obviously ,data dictonary cache. The redo log buffer is a separatly tunable area in the SGA.
        7. Tune OS memory Structures if necessary : The SWAP area can become a bottleneck since it functions as an OS temporary storage, user temporary storage, and the OS virtual memory backing store. The SA and DBA musht work together so that the OS provides enough shared memory and semaphores to give the Oracle processes enough breathing room to operate efficiently.
        1. Tune Database I/O Database I/O is affected by both the RDBMS and the OS of course, but tuning the I/O means relocating logical and physical structures to reduce contention. If this point in tunning is reached you will have already tuned the database buffer cache. Now the main focus will be to simply adjust the physical design. You physically do more redesiging , if necessary with I/O in mind exclusively.
        2. Tune OS I/O if necessary The OS fullfils all write and reads requests by all processes, including the Oracle background procceses DBWR and LGRW. As OS typically buffers these requests, performs reads and writes, and then returns the acknowlegment and data back to the process upon completion. File system are data structures that contain metadata about the files they manage, suche as the location of each files starting sector address, its sector length, its directory tree location, its attributes (permissions,size,timestamps,etc). In UNIX, file systems have their own logical block sizes, which correspond to something greater than or equal to a physical block size (512 bytes), usually 8KB by default. The oracle Block size should be at least 8KB or a multiple of it,such as 16KB.
        3. Other importatn OS and Oracle I/O tuning issues include: read-ahead capabilities, asynchronous I/O, multiblock reads, RAID stripe sizes, disk geometry issues, controlles issues,and many more.

        4. Tune the network if necessary A saturated network can cancel out imporvments made by database tuning.
        5. Tune the clients if necessary
        6. Consider more exotic solutions Oracle Multithreaded Server ("MTS") , transaction processing (TP) monitors, Oracle Parallel Query and other parallel capabilities, Oracle's clustering capabilities, Oracle's bitmapped indexing, MPP machines, solid state disks, memory-resident (RAM) disks, hardware accelerators and queuing systems.
    1. Identify tuning goals
    2. There are different ways of determining the goals of a performance tuning effort, consider the application type, also sampling the database on various quantative measaurs is further defining the tuning goals:

      1. Throughput : Work per unit time , as measured by transactions per second; higher is obviously better.
      2. Response Time: The time it takes for an application to respond, measured in milliseconds or seconds, lower is better.
      3. Wall Time : The elapsed time a program takes to run, lower is better.

      In most systems throughput and response time run counter to one another as tuning goals. If response time is high (bad), throughput might be high (good). If throughput is low (bad) then response time might be low (good).

      Typically OLTP systems want low response time or high throughput, in terms of transaction on the application needs. A DSS wants low response time , and a batch system normally wants lower wall times.

      Always consider the two central tuning goals :

        1. Maximize your return on invesetment Invest your time and effort wisely by working on the problems most likely to yield the most improvement.
        2. Minimize contention : Bottlenecks are characterized by delays and waits;eliminate or reduce these whenever possible.

      Also consider these general-purpose tuning goals :

        1. Minimize the number of blocks that need to be accessed; review and rewrite code as necessary.
        2. Use caching, buffering and queueing whenever possible to compensate for the electromechanical disadvantage ( memory is faster than disk);prefetch
        3. Minimize data transfer rates ( the time it takes to read or write data); fast disks,RAID and parallel operations help do this.
        4. Schedule Programs to run as noncompetetively as possible, they might run concurrently and yet still be noncompetetive for the most part.
    3. List the strengths of different database configurations for recoverability.
    4. The two main configurations for running a database are ARCHIVELOG and NOARCHIVELOG. Assuming a recovery operation is needed the following scenarios could arise:

      If the database is in ARCHIVOLOG there are two possibilities:

        1. Complete-Recovery : The database is restored and recovered through the applicaion of ALL redo information (this includes both the online and archived redo log files) since the last backup. This type of recovery is performed normally when one of more data files or control files are damaged, the damaged files are recovered using al the redo information generated since the last full backup.
        2. Incomplete-Recovery: In this scenario the database is restored and recovered through the application of only SOME of the redo information generated since the last backup. This type of recovery is normally used when an on-line redo log file is lost due to hardware failure or a certain user requires to backup to a certain point in time,in simpler terms, an incomplete recovery only rollsback certain transactions without the need to involve ALL the redo-log files.

      If the database is in NOARCHIVELOG:

      You benefit from not having to save all the on-line redo log files, on heavily accesed systems this type of configuration alleviates disk-space usage,because in ARCHIVELOG every on-line redo log file is eventually backed-up; these archived redo-log files can easily fill up a WHOLE disk (10-12 GB) in a matter of hours. However the disadvantage of running this configuration is that in the event of a failure your only means of backup is by your last backup tape, Oracle cannot help in this case because it does not have a history of previous redo-log files , the ones that are ARCHIVED in ARCHIVELOG mode.

  1. Oracle Alert Log and Trace Files
    1. Describe the location and usefullnes of the Alert Log
    2. The alert log records the commands and command results of major events in the life of the database,e.g. Tablespace creation, redo log switches, recovery operations, and data base startups.

      This file is located at the location specified by the parameter BACKGROUND_DUMP_TEST in the init.ora file.

    3. Describe the location and usefullness of the background and user processes dump files.
    4. When a background processes is terminated or abnormally aborts an operation, it usually produces a trace file containing an error message causing the failure. Dumps of the current process stacks, currently executing cursors, and many other information pertinent to the problem. A background dump test is saved at the background_dump_test parameter in the init.ora file, these processes are commonly known as "detached process dumps". A user dump test is saved to the directory specified in the parameter user_dump_test in the init.ora file, these processes are of cours known as "user process dumps".

      It is more important to collect these files and forward them to Oracle Support as they may help resolve the problem. The background processes also write an entry to the alert.log file for the database.

  2. Utilities and Dynamic Performance Views
    1. Collect analysis through
      1. Available Dynamic troubleshooting and performance views.
      2. All the Oracle products such as server manager,enterprise manager, rely on the V$ dynamic performance views. These views are grouped into instance, database, memory, disk, user, session, and contention aspects of performance they are based on the internal X$ base tables. The available V$ views are at the table V$FIXED_TABLE to get a listing of the V$ views.

        The V$ views are called dynamic because they are populated at instance startup and are truncated at shutdown. The V$ views also form the basis of the standart Oracle tuning scripts, UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT, which query them using SQL scripts and format the output that is returned. Therefore, if UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT do not give you what you want, you can use Server Manager and the V$ views to either supplement or supplant those utilities.

      3. The UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT report output
      4. This is the most commonly used diagnostic utility. The DBA runs UTLBSTAT before running his or her application or simulation. The utlbstat script builds the beginning tables necessary to collect and store the performance data. The the DBA run utlestat which builds the ending tables and the difference tables, computes the performance differences (deltas) between the utlbstat run and this utlestat run, formats the data output data ( including comments and some explanations ), and writes it to the default file, report.txt . This file must be interpreted by the DBA, either directly or inderectily ( by taking some of the output values given and using them as inputs into simple formulas ).

        Interpretation of this data means comparing these final figures to more or less established guidelines, keeping the ROI startegy in mind, and categorizing the findings as acceptable or not for that given area of performance.

      5. Oracle wait events
      6. Appropriate Enterprise Manager tuning tools
      7. Enterprise Manager "performance pack" is extremly useful.The components in the performance pack help analyze your logicaland physical design. They also monitor locks, a variety of performance issues (throughput, redo, rollback,I/O, memory,etc),the top user sessions with regard to resource consumption, you tablespace storage (data files,fragmentation,etc), and application events through tracing.

    2. Define the latch types
    3. Latches are used to control access to shared structures. Latches are implemented using semaphores at the OS level. Latches are locks that are held for a very small amount of time.

      Before a process gets access to a shared structure protected by a latch, it has to first acquire the latch. This latch could currently be free (that is, no other process is accessing the latch) in which case the processes gets the latch immediatly. This processes will hold the latch for the period of time it requires and will then relinquish the latch. In case the latch is already acquired by another process,the process has two options:

        1. Acquire the latch in immediate mode If this ocurrs and the latch is already being used by another process (as is the case ), the process will not wait to acquire the latch, it will continue by taking a different action.
        2. Acquire the latch in willing to wait mode If the process fails to acquire the latch in the first try, it will wait and try again. If the system has multiple CPUs, this unsuccesful process will start spinning on the latch and try to acquire it. THe number of times the process spins on the latch is defined by the parameter spin_count in the init.ora file. With every spin, it will try to acquire the latch, if it does not , it will continue to try to acquire the latch until the spin_count parameter in the init.ora file is reached. After that the processes will go to sleep for a specified amount of time, wake up again, and repeat the aforementioned cycle.
        3. To view latches the following "views" are used :

        4. V$latch : This view conatins all important statistics related to the performance of various latch on the system.
        5. V$latchholder : If the system is currently having latch contention problems , this view can be used to determine which session is currently holding the latch.

      The Important latches:

      There are aprox. 52 types of latches on an Oracle installation. However the follwing latches are of significant importance in any tuning job.

      1. cache buffers lru chain latch : This latch is responsible for protecting the access paths to db block buffer in the buffer cache. The buffer cache size defined by the parameter db_block_buffers resides in the SGA and contains a cached copy of data read from data files.
      2. The buffer cache is organized in two lists: the dirty list and the LRU list. The dirty list contains the buffers that have been modified but not written to the disk yet. The LRU list is comprised of the pinned buffers, the dirty buffers that have not yet been moved to the dirty list, and the free buffers. The pinned buffer are buffers that are currently accessed by other processes. The dirty buffers contain buffers that are to be written to the disk, and they then subsequently get moved to the dirty list. The free buffers are the buffers that are available for use.

        When a process needs to read data from the disk that is not already in the cache, it needs a free buffer to read the new data. It scans the LRU list to check for free buffers. If there are excessive requests for free buffers in the buffer cache, tere will be high access to the LRU list causing contention for the cache buffer LRU chain. The contention for this latch can be minimized with the parameter db_block_lru_latches in the init.ora file. By increasing this paramater, the contention for this latch can be minimized. The maximum value for this parameter is double the numberof CPUs

        The basic reason for contention for this latch is a high request for free buffers. You can optimize the SQL statments to minimize the high demand for free buffers or increase the db_block_buffer parameter to increase the number of free buffers available on the system. NOTE: The SGA must fit into contiguous chunks of real memory, so if the buffer cache is enlarged you must ensure there is enough contiguos memory available on the system to service the increase.

      3. redo allocation AND redo copy latches : These latches control the access to the redo log buffer. When a process requires writing to the redo log buffer, one of these latches is to be acquired by the process. If the size of the redo log information written to the redo log buffer is less thant the log_small_entry_max_size parameter, the process will use the redo allocation latch. If the size is greater than this value, the process is copied using the redo copy latch .
      4. A quick way to check whether there is any contention on the redo log buffer is to check where there are any waits associated with writing to the redo log buffer. This can be done using the V$sysstat view :


        select name,value
        from v$sysstat
        where name = 'redo log space requests'

        The size of the redo log buffer will have to be increased if the number of waits is too high.

        Contention for the redo allocation latch : The contention for the redo allocation latch can be reduced on a multi-CPU system by forcing the process to use the redo copy latch instead. Because there can be multiple redo copy latches, the copy will be done more efficiently. The number of redo copy latches is defined by the parameter LOG_SIMULTANEOUS_COPIES The maximum number of available latches on the system is double the number of CPUs.For a single CPU system, this value is 0, and the redo allocation latch will be used. If there is a contention for the redo allocation latch , the value of log_small_entry_max_size can be decreased from its current value so thar redo copy latch is used.

        Contention of the redo copy latch : If the system is facing contention for the redo copy latch , it can be decreased by either increasing the value of log_small_entry_max_size ( so that the redo allocation latch is used) or increasing the value of log_simultaneous_copies (so that it increases the number of redo copy latches available).

        The init.ora parameter log_entry_prebuild_threshold can be increased so that the data that is written to the redo log buffer is grouped and written out. By increasing the parameter, a number of write operations can be grouped so that they can be written out in one operation, thereby reducing requests for these latches and thus contention.

      5. Library Cache Latch : This latch is primarly concerned with the control of access to the libarary cache. The library cache inclusdes the Shared SQL area, private SQL areas, PL/SQL procedure packages, and other control structures.Shared SQL area contains SQLs that are shared among multiple sessions. By increasing the sharing of these SQLs, contention to this latch can be avoided. Contention for this latch occurs when there is a lot of demand for space in the library cache. Very high parsing on the system and heavy demand to open a new cursor because of low sharing among processes are some of the common causes of contention on this latch.
      6. Contention for this latch can be avoided by using code that can be shared by multiple sessions. This can be done by typing the code with the same conventions (all capitals for DML key words, or just the first letter a capital ) to the parsing engine even a one lower-upper case letter will generate a different hah value. Even putting more spaces in a select statement causes the hash to be different.

        Using bind variables: Using bind variables prevents multiple copies of the same select statement from being shared in the same pool.e.g:

          select sal from employee where emp_if := emp_id;
        

        Pinning frequently used objects like procedures and packages. The advantage is that these objects will never be flushed out of the shared pool.These objects can be identified by :

                      select name, executions
        
        from V$db_object_cache
        where executions >
        order by 2 desc;

        And in order to pin these objects in the shared pool.

                      dbms_share_pool.keep('object name','P');
        

        To check the object in the shared pool that are not pinned :


        select name,type,kept,sharable_mem
        From v$db_object_cache
        Where kept = 'NO'
        Order by shareable_mem desc;



  • Tuning the Shared Pool
    1. Tune the library cache and the data dictonary cache
    2. The Shared pool is a special type of buffer. Whereas a buffer is a "dumb" mechanism, simply providing temporary storage data on its way between fast memory and slow disk, a cache is a "smart" mechanism, retaining memory as to whether it has that information, or part of it, so that it can avoid many unnecessary trips to the disk as possible. When an I/O request is made, the cache checks to see whether it already has it ni memory.If it does,it answers the request itself,returning the requested data. This is know as a hit. If it does not, a trip to the disk is warranted. This is known as a miss. For most cache mechanism a 90+ % hit ratio is very good perfromance.Caches are generally managed by the LRU (Least Recently Used) algorithm, which ensures that, at any given time, the MRU (Most Recently used) data is held in cache, and the LRU data is aged out.

      When Oracle parses a SQL statement, it allocates an SQL area in the library cache for it by applying a mathematical formula to the alphanumeric text of the SQL statement and using the result to store (and later find) it in the cache . In other words it uses a hash function In order for the statement to be reused by another, the statements must by identical. For example, is an extra space or different case letter is used in a query then the hash function will not be applicable. Another problem with hash functions is the use of literals in the query, it is recommended that the query use a bind variables in order for the hash statement to be reused, a bind variable is normally a host 3GL variable, such as a C integer. Then the value of the variable can take on any specified integer, with the benfit of reusing the function in the library cache. ( In the case of DSS the use of bind variables is limited )

      The Shared pool is composed of the library cache and the data dictonary cache

        1. The library cache: Contains all the recently executed SQL statements, such as stored procedures, functions, packages, triggers, and PL/SQL blocks.
        2. The data dictonary cache portion of the shared pool is sized by the parameter SHARED_POOL_SIZE, and it is the ONLY way to indirectly size this cache. The following are the object that held in the SYS and SYSTEM schemes: X$ Tables, V$ views, DBA_ views, User_ views. Sizing, diagnosing and tuning the library cache so that it performs wll should have the side effect of helping the performance of the data dictonary cache because they both coexist in the shared pool. They are not separatly configurable. There are a couple of ways to measure data dictonary cache performance. One is to query the V$rowcache view:
        3. select sum(GETMISSES)/SUM(GETS) "DC_MISS_RATIO"
          
          from v$rowcache;

          The other way is to get the datadictonary section of report.txt (UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT). Compute the sum of all the GET_MISS and divide that by the sum of all the GET_REQS to get a similar DC_MISS_RATIO.

          If either of these two methods yield a DC_MISS_RATIO > .15, increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE (and retest)

    3. Measure the shared pool hit ratio
    4. select gethitratio      
      
      from v$librarycache
      where namespace='SQL AREA';
    5. Size the shared pool apropriatly
    6. To improve the performace of the library cache:

        1. Minimize unnecessary parse calls from within applications : Parsing is CPU intensive. Becasue caching and buffering are involved, it is also memory-intensive as a by-product. Cursor opening and closing should be carefully placed in the application to facilitate reuse of the private SQL area for multiple SQL statements. The parameters OPEN_CURSORS in init.ora , might need to be modified in order to allow for the sufficient allocation of cursor space ( private SQL areas). To determine wheter your application might be inefficient in this regard, run SQL TRACE/TKPROF and examine wheter the count column for parse is near the value for Execute (or Fetch). If so, the application is then reparsing for almost every execute (or fetch).
        2. Maximize reuse of those statements that must be parsed : As mentioned,SQL statements must be identical to be reused. Establish some conventions,like "always code SQL statements in uppercase".Furthermore except for DSS apllications, use bind variables when appropriate.
        3. Pin Frequently Used program objects in memory : Is Oracle a cursor, trigger, procedure or package can be held in memory using a special shared pool package DBMS_SHARED_POOL. To create this package you must run the procedure dbmspool.sql script. You might also need to run the scripts prvtpool.sql (check version on platform to see if this script needs to be run) Run the(se) script(s) as SYS.
        4. EXECUTE DBMS_SHARED_POOL.KEEP('');
          

          To unpin the object:

          EXECUTE DBMS_SHARED_POOL.UNKEEP('');
          

          To determine if the object was pinned

          select substr(NAME,1,25), KEPT from v$db_obeject_cache;
          
        5. Minimize fragmentation in the library cache : Unless your application is guarded against fragementation, you will commonly receive ORA-04031 errors( not enough contiguos free space ). One way to avoid this fragmentation is by pinning frequently used objects to memory. For less frequently used objects you can use the init.ora parameters SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE. You set aside a shared pool "reverved area" for your large objects. Essentialy you guarentee that your necessary large object will find space. Set the SHAED_POOL_RESERVER_SIZE to what would be the maximum number of bytes of your largest objects simultaneously loaded. To determine the size of a particular object you want to include in the reserved area, use:
        6. select substr(name,1,25) "NAME", SHAREABLE_MEM
          
          from V$db_object_cache
          where name='';

          Also determine the size you need to set SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE use:

          select sum(shareable_mem)
          
          from V$db_object_cache
          where shareable_mem >= ;

          In order to do the previous you need to have an idea of what constitutes a "large object". So take the following steps:

            1. Set SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_MIN_ALLOC to your specification
            2. Set SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE to the output of the last query, plus a fudge factor of 10%.
            3. You can also set CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME to TRUE to prevent SQL areas associated with cursors from aging out of the library cache before they have been closed by a program. NOTE: Do not change the value for CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME to true if: RELOADS in V$LIBRARY always show a 0 value, you are using Oracle forms or SQL*Forms or You use dynamic SQL.

        7. Pin Object in the shared pool
        8. Rather than reserving space in the Shared pool, you may wish to selectively "pin" packages in memory. Pining packages in memory immediatly after starting the database will increase the likelyhood that a large enough section of contiguos free space is avilable in memory. The KEEP procedure in the DBMS_SHARED_POOL package designates the packages to pin in the shared pool.

          alter procedure APPOWNER.ADD_CLIENT compile;
          
          execute DBMS_SHARED_POOL.KEEP('APPOWNER.ADD_CLIENT','P');

          Pining of packages is more related to application management than application tunning, but it can have a performance impact.

        9. Tune the shared pool reserved space
        10. Rather than using the large pool, you can reserve an area within the shared pool for large objects via the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE parameter in init.ora . The "reserve size" is set aside for the shared pool entries of large object (such as large packages).

        11. Describe the User Global Area (UGA) and session memory consideration
        12. Configure the Large Pool
        13. The large pool in Oracle will be used when Oracle requests large contiguos area of memory within the shared pool ( such as during use of the multithreaded server). To create a large pool, set a value (in bytes) for the LARGE_POOL_SIZE parameter in init.ora. BY default this pool is not created. You can specify the minimum allocation size for an object in the large pool via the LARGE_POOL_MIN_ALLOC parameter in init.ora. This parameter defaults to 16KB is obsolete in Oracle 8i.

        14. Tuning the Buffer Cache
          1. Describe how the buffer cache is managed
          2. The single most important tuning change you can make to improve the performance of your Oracle system is to properly set the size of the database buffer cache accordingly. The database buffer cache is the cache structure in the SGA and holds copies of the memory of the Most Recently Used (MRU) Oracle data blocks. The TWO parameters that determine the size are:

              1. DB_BLOCK_SIZE : Which is the size of an Oracle Block. This can range from 2KB (2048 bytes ) to 64 KB (65536 bytes). For performance generally the higher the better. If your database has already been created with a relatively small block size , consider rebuilding it if that is feasible for your application:
                  1. Shut down the Instance
                  2. Do a full export of your database (if feasible)
                  3. Increase de DB_BLOCK_SIZE in your init.ora
                  4. Startup the Instance
                  5. Reimport the database as SYS.
              2. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS: Is the number of Oracle blocks to be held in memory. Each buffer equals one block. This should be sufficiently high to yield en efficient hit ratio, but not so high as to cause OS paging. The last thing you want is the SGA being paged in and out of memory by the OS. Paging is Oracle's primary job when it comes to the DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS and you dont want the OS paging underneath Oracle!. It pages them in on demand. Hence, your database buffer cache, along with the shared pool, should fit comfortably in real (available core) memory. You must also be careful to take into consideration non-Oracle application memory requirements, and the OS requirements. The size of the database buffer cache is : DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS X DB_BLOCK_SIZE

            The database buffer cache is somewhat of a misnomer, in that the cache is a special kind of buffer. Hence buffer cache is actually redundant, not to mention a little confusing. The real point to put accros is that it caches Oracle blocks It is different from the shared pool in that it caches data and not programs.

            Oracle always reads Oracle blocks into the database buffer cache before passing them on to user processes. A user process, or application, always reads from ( and writes to ) the database buffer cache. The following are the steps in the buffer management of an I/O request:

              1. User select data ( request block)
              2. Server looks in database buffer cache for it
              3. If it finds it (through the hash function) in the LRU list, it retunrs it.
              4. It it doesnt find it,it reads in the block from the datafile on the disk and attaches it (using the hash function) to the MRU or LRU end of the LRU list as appropriate.
              5. If the user does not modify it, its finished.
              6. If the user does modify it, DBWR writes de block (dirty buffer) back to its location in datafile on disk.

            Index can be accessesed one block at a time. Full table scans can have multiple blocks read with one request. Set the number of blocks (batch size) by setting: DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT = .

            Buffers can be free (clean), dirty, current, or read-consistent (rollback).

            A free buffer is one that has yet to be used since instance startup, or one that has been used and is now available.

            A dirty buffer is one that has been used, but has not been flushed , or written out by the DBWR on checkpoint.

            A current buffer is one used in service of an INSERT,UPDATE, or DELETE. By their very nature, current buffers more often than not become dirty.

            Read-consistent buffers serve SELECT statements and rollback. Blocks read in service of full table scans are placed at the LRU end of the LRU buffer chain. However, you can still cache whole tables on the MRU end of the chain.

          3. Calculate and tune the buffer cache hit ratio
          4. Because memory I/O is several magnitudes faster than disk I/O (nano vs. mili ) , you want I/O requests to be satisfied by memory as often as possible. You want block on average to be fetched 90 % of the time from the database buffer cache ( data block buffer cache) versus the datafile. You also want to minimize latch contention. The LRU buffer chain, o list , is locked through latch mechanisms, jsut like those throughout the Oracle kernel and the library cache ( in the shared pool). As with any latch approach, you must have enough because latches ( or spin locks ) contain no queing mechanisms as with semaphores.

            One way to calculate the hit ratio is with:

            select 1-(P.VALUE/(D.VALUE+C.VALUE)) "CACHE HIT RATIO"
            
            FROM V$SYSSTAT P, V$SYSSTAT C, V$SYSSTAT D
            WHERE P.NAME = 'physical reads'
            AND D.NAME = 'db block gets'
            AND C.NAME = 'consistent gets';

            Here "physical reads" is the number of block read from the disk, "db block gets" is the number of blocks read from current copies of blocks in cache, and "consistent gets" is the number of read consistent (rollback) copies of blocks in cache. It is summed up as 1 - (physical reads / logical reads )

          5. Tune the buffer cache hit ratio by adding or removing buffers
          6. If the database buffer cache hit ratio is less than .90, increase the db_block_buffers and rerun the query, or utlbstat.sql/utlestat.sql.

            Increasing this parameter requires an instance shutdown and startup, it is not as complicated as changing the db_block_size . There is also another option that simulates the effect of adding more buffers to the database. First the instance needs to shutdown, then the parameter DB_BLOCK_LRU_STATISTICS = . Once the instance is started up once again, let your application run again for a reasnable amount of time, just as you would for UTLBSTAT.sql/UTLESTAT.sql. The table X$KCBRBH

          7. Create multiple buffer pools
          8. Size multiple buffer pools
          9. Monitor buffer cache usage
          10. Make appropriate use of table caching
          11. Diagnose LRU latch contention
          12. Avoid free list cotention

        15. Tuning the Redo Log Buffer
          1. Determine if processes are waiting for space in the redo log buffer
          2. Size the redo log buffer appropriatly
          3. Reduce redo operations

        16. Database configuration and I/O issues
          1. Diagnose appropriate use od SYSTEM,RBS,TEMP, DATA and INDEX tablespaces.
          2. Use locally managed tablespaces to avoid space management issues
          3. Detect I/O problems
          4. Ensure that the files are distributed to minimize I/O contention and use appropriate type of devices.
          5. Use striping where appropriate
          6. Tune checkpoints
          7. Tune DBWn process I/O
          8. The parameter LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT specifies an upper bound on the time a buffer can be dirty in the cache before DBWn must write it to disk. If you set LOG_CHECKPOINT to 60, then no buffer reamins dirty in the cache for more than 60 seconds. The default value for LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT is 1800.

        17. Using Oracle Blocks Efficiently
          1. Determine the appropriate block size
          2. Optimize space usage within blocks
          3. Detect and resolve row migration
          4. Monitor and tune indexes

                1. Optimizing Sort Operations
                  1. Identify the SQL operation that requiere sorting
                  2. Your first and best strategy is to avoid sorts when possible, because they consume a substantial amount of CPU time, memory and disk. However when this cannot be done,which is most often the case, sorting needs to be tuned.

                    Sorting can take place fully in memory, and that is the desired case. However it is more likely to spill over to disk sorting,especially with large tables, which can be extremely time-consuming despite even the best physical design of a database.

                    The second best strategy is to sort in memory as much as possible and sort on disk only when absolutly necessary. Of course, this implies allocating sufficinet temporary disk space (in effect, the TEMP tablespace), and separating this space physically from the rest of the Oracle datafiles, rollback segments and redo logs.

                    Who generates sorts ? : The CREATE INDEX statement obviously requires a sort operation on the index key to enable the creation of the B*tree structure. ALTER INDEX... REBUILD likewise requires the same sort. However, you can choose to sort the data at the OS level and then create the index with the NOSORT option. This doesnt usually buy you anything, unless you happen to already have a sorted copy of the data, because you are onlu trading RDBMS sorting for OS sorting, which isnt much of a trade. Other options include using a fast, third party sorting utility, such as SyncSort, or using Oracle's Parallel Query Option (PQO) to use SQL*Loader and load the data in parallel, unsorted.

                    ORDER BY and GROUP BY usually require sorts. However, an ORDER BY on an indexed column uses the already sorted index in most circumstances. To verify this action use the command EXPLAIN PLAN.

                    The DISTINCT qualifier must use a sorting technique(again, unless it is used on a column already with a unique index) to eliminate duplicte column values. Like wise a UNION must eliminate duplicate rows (However a UNION ALL , by definition allows duplicate rows, so because it doesnt eliminate duplicates, it doesn't require sorting. If primary keys are enforced on the two UNIONable tables, there wont be any duplicates to start with, so the UNION ALL is a recommended substitute for the UNION operation ). INTERSECT and MINUS require some duplicate elimination, though experience nowhere near the burden of a UNION operation. Similarly, IN and NOT IN can require sorting, especially if they are in support of nested subqueries. A join operation requires sorts of whatever tables do not already have exsiting indexes on the join key. The more usual situation, though , is for tables to be joined on primary keys(already having unique indexes),thereby negating the need for sorting any of the tables. The following list sums up the SQL commands or operators that can trigger sorts:

                    1. CREATE INDEX, ALTER INDEX ... REBUILD
                    2. ORDER BY, GROUP BY
                    3. DISTINCT
                    4. UNION, INTERSECT, MINUS
                    5. IN, NOT IN

                    The primary parameters affecting sort operations are:

                      1. SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE : The maximum amount of memory to be used for an in memory sort
                      2. SORT_AREA_SIZE : The maximum amount of memory to be used for an external disk sort operation, involving the allocation of a temporary segment.

                    If a sort operation requires more than SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE for an in-memory sort, it attempts to perform the sort within SORT_AREA_SIZE for an external disk sort, allocating a temporary segment in the process. If the sort operation requires further memory, it splits the sort burden into multiple sort runs and allocates multiple temporary segments for that purpose. The server process sorts one segment at a time and returns the merger of the sorted segments as the result. These memory allocations are not stored in the SGA shared pool, except when using MTS. Instead, they are part of the UGA. If you are using MTS,they are part of the SGA shared pool because the UGA is relocated there anyway.

                    Using EXPLAIN PLAN,you can see that many SQL statements can require multiple sorts within their execution plans. The sort that is currently executing in known as the active sort. A join sort is a sort in support of a joib operation. Any active sort requires SORT_AREA_SIZE. Any join sort requires SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE. These settings hold true only for the dedicated server. For PQO, each parallel query server requires SORT_AREA_SIZE . However the two sets of parallel servers can be working at once. So , for PQO, set the following values:

                      1. SORT_AREA_SIZE x 2 x (degree of parallelism)
                      2. SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE x (degree of parallelism) x (number of sorts > 2)

                    For PQO, the optional value is 1MB. Higher values havent yielded better performance. In general SORT_AREA_SIZE = SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE, except for MTS, which requires some special considerations.For MTS, set SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE much smaller than SORT_AREA_SIZE.As a guideline, you can set:

                    SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE = (SORT_AREA_SIZE / the number of expected concurrent sorts), but not less than 1/10 (SORT_AREA_SIZE)
                    

                    Temporary (Sort) segments must be created when a sort cannot take place fully in memory. That is, as discussed, when the sort operation memory requirments exceed SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE, it then requires the allocation of a temporary segment and attempts to work within SORT_AREA_SIZE. A temporary tablespace segment cannot contain any permanent objects and conisists solely of a single sort segment. Temporary Tablespaces are created with the CREATE or ALTER TABLESPACE ....... TEMPORARY syntax. Again,these temporary tablespaces are made up of one segment, created initially on the fly by the first sort requiring it. This segment grows in extents as sort concurrency and operation size increase.

                    A useful guide in seting the parameters for the extent are INITIAL = NEXT = ( max size as prescribed by datafile or disk) / (number of expected concurrent sorts). The number of expected concurrent sorts can be calculated roughly as equal to twice the number of concurrent queries . This is a case when you dont want one large extent sized just below the datafile size, which would normally be a good recommendation for general use (permanent) tablespaces. Also, set INITIAL= NEXT = some multiple of SORT_AREA_SIZE plus at least one block for the overhead of the extent header because you wouldn't want any single sort requiring more than one extent. At the same time, you can afford to have a few sorts stored in the same extents, due to the random nature fo concurrent access. Set PCTINCREASE to 0 because you dont want any surprises such as increasingly large NEXT extents. Besides, becasue concurrency again plays a factor here;having equal sized extents is a fair approach, barring actual sizing techniques, and it works well with random size requirements ( no single sort need is too far from the average) .

                    In the SGA, a memory structure known as the Sort Extent Pool (SEP) includes the extents that make up the single sort segments belonging to the temporary tablespaces. When sort space is requested by a process, this pool offers free extents (those that have been allocated and used by an earlier running process, and are now free but not deallocated) to be reused, much like the capability of reusing buffers in the database buffer cache. Furthermore, the V$SORT_SEGMENT contains information such as number of users,and block using the temporary sort segments. You can use this to determine efficiency (hits) and help size your extents properly.

                    Oracle offers the capability of having sorts bypass the database buffer cache, this is called sort direct write . Of course, you will need to SORT_AREA_SIZE bytes,but each sort operation can have its own memory buffers and write them directly to disk. The size of the buffers is set by the init.ora parameter SORT_WRITE_BUFFERSIZE(32-64KB), and the number of buffers is set by SORT_WRITE_BUFFER(2-8).Each regular (serial) sort operation requires a Sort Direct Writes Buffer of:

                                    (SORT_WRITE_BUFFERS x SORT_WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE ) + SORT_AREA_SIZE
                    

                    For PQO , each (parallel) sort requires :

                     ((SORT_WRITE_BUFFERS x SORT_WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE)
                    
                    + SORT_AREA_SIZE) x 2 x (degree of parallelism)

                    The init.ora parameter, SORT_DIRECT_WRITES, determines the sorting behavior regarding using the database buffer cache or not. If set to AUTO, the default, and if SORT_AREA_SIZE >= 10 x Sort Direct Writes Buffer, the Sort Direct Writes Buffer is used. If set to FALSE, sort writes are buffered in the database buffer cache before being written back out to disk.These are normal sort buffer writes. If set to TRUE, sort writes are always sort direct writes. VLDBs, DSSs, and Data Warehouses should normally have this set to TRUE (or at least left to AUTO)

                  3. Ensure that sorting is done in memory when possible
                  4. Reduce the number of I/Os required for the sort runs
                  5. Allocate temporary space appropriatly

                2. Tuning Rollback Segments
                  1. Use the dynamic performance views to check the rollback segment performance
                  2. Reconfigure and monitor rollback segments
                  3. Define the number and sizes of rollback segments
                  4. Appropriatly allocate rollback segments to transaction.

                3. Monitoring and Detecting Lock Contention
                  1. Define types and modes of locking
                  2. List possible causes of contention
                  3. Use Oracle utilities to detect lock contention
                  4. Resolve contention in an emergency
                  5. Prevent Locking Problems

                4. SQL Issues and Tuning Considerations for Different Applications
                  1. Identify the Role of the DBA in application tuning
                  2. Use optimizer modes to enhance SQL statement performance
                  3. In general,always use the cost-based optimization approach. The rule-based approach is available for the benfit of existing applications, but new optimizer functionality uses the cost-based approach. The following features are only available with cost-based optimization.

                    1. Partitioned Tables
                    2. Index-Organized Tables
                    3. Reverse Indexes
                    4. Parallel Execution
                    5. Star transformations
                    6. Star Joins

                    The cost-based approach genrally chooses an execution plan that is as good as or better than the plan chosen by the rule-based approach. This is specially true for large queries with multiple joins or multiple indexes. To maintain the effectivnes of cost-based optimizer, you must keep statistics current

                    To use cost-based optimization for a statement, collect statistics for the table accessed by the statement and enable cost-based optimization using one of these methods :

                    1. Make sure the OPTIMIZER_MODE init.ora parameter is set to its default value of CHOOSE.
                    2. To enable cost-based optimization for you session only, issue an ALTER SESSION SET OPTIMIZER_MODE with the ALL_ROWS or FIRST_ROWS option.
                    3. To enable cost-based optimization for an individual SQL statement,use any hint other than RULE.

                    Oracle supports rule-based optimization, but you should design new applcations to use cost-based optimization. You should also use cost-based optimization for data warehousing applications because the cost based optimizer supports new and enhanced features for DSS. You should eventually migrate your existing applications to use th ecost-based approach, because eventually, the rule-based approach will not be availabe in the Oracle Server.

                  4. Manage stored outlines to store execution paths as a series of hints
                  5. An outline consists primarly of a set of hints that is equivalent to the optimizers results for the execution plan generation of a particular SQL statement. When Oracle creates an outline, Plan Stability examines the optimization results using the same data used to generate the execution plan. That is, Oracle uses the input to the execution plan to generate an outline and not the execution plan itself.

                    Oracle uses one of two scenarios when compiling SQL statements and matching them with outlines. The first scenario is that if you disable outline use by setting the system/session parameter USE_STORED_OUTLINES to FALSE, Oracle does not attmept to match SQL text to outlines. The second scenario involves the following two matching steps.

                    First,if you specify that Oracle must use a particular outline category, only outlines in that category are candidates for matching. Second, if the SQL text of the incoming statement exactly matches the SQL text in an outline in that category, Oracle considers both texts identical and uses the outline. Oracle considers any differences a mismatch.

                    Differences include spacing changes, carriage return variations, embedded hints, or even differences in comment text. These rules are identical to the rules for cursor matching.

                    How Oracle Stores Outlines:

                    Oracle stores outline data in the OL$ table and hint data in the OL$HINTS table. Unless you remove them Oracle retains outlines indefinitely. Oracle retains execution plans in cache and only recreates them if they become invalid or if the cache is not large enough to hold all of the them. The only effect outlines have on caching execution plans is that the outlines category name is used in addition to the SQL text to identify whether the plan is in cache. This ensures Oracle does not use an execution plan complied under one category to execute a SQL statement that Oracle should compile under a different category.

                    Oracle can automatically create outlines for all SQL statements, or you can create them for specific SQL statements. In either case, the outlines derive their input from the rule-based or cost-based optimizers. Oracle creates stored outlines automatically when you set the parameter CREATE_STORED_OUTLINES to TRUE. When activated, Oracle creates outlines for all executed SQL statements. You can also create stored outlines for specific statements using the CREATE OUTLINE statement.

                    To use stored outlines when Oracle compiles a SQL statement,set the system parameter USE_STORED_OUTLINES to TRUE or to a category name. If you set USE_STORED_OUTLINES to TRUE, Oracle uses outlines in the DEFAULT category. If you specify a category in the parameter, Oracle uses outlines in that category until you re-set the USE_STORED_OUTLINES to FALSE.If you specify a category name and Oracle does not find an outline in that category that matches de SQL statement, Oracle searches for an outline in the DEFAULT category. You can access information about outlines and related hint data that Oracle stores in the : USER_OUTLINES and USER_OUTLINE_HINTS views.

                  6. Use the available data access methods to tune the physical design of the database.
                  7. Identify the demands of online transaction processing (OLTP)
                  8. OLTP applications are high throughput,insert/update-intensive systems.These systems are characterized by growing volumes of data that several hundred users access concurrently. Typical OLTP applications are airline reservation systems and banking applications. They key goals of OLTP systems are: availability(7x24); speed(throughput); concurrency and recoverarability.

                    In these types of databases you must avoid excessive use of indexes and clusters because these structures slow down insert and update activity

                    The following elements are crucial for OLTP systems: Rollback segments, Indexes-Cluster and hashing, Discrete Transactions, Data Block Size, Dynamic Allocation of space to tables and rollback segments, Transaction processing monitors and the multi-threaded server, the shared pool, well tuned SQL statements,integrity constraints, client/server architecture, dynamically changeable initialization parameters, procedures, packages and functions.

                  9. Identify the demands of decision support systems (DSS)
                  10. Decision support system or Data Warehousing applications typcially convert large amounts of information into used-defined reports. They perform queries on the large amount of data gathered from OLTP applications. Decision makers use these applications to determine what strategies the organization should take. An example of a decision support system is a marketing tool that determines the buying patterns of consumers based on infromation gathered from demographic studies. The key goals of a data warehousing system (DSS) are repsonse time, accuracy and availability.

                    The key to performance in a DSS is properly tuned queries and proper use of indexes,clusters and hashing.

                    The following issues are crucial in implementing and tuning DSS: Materialized Views, Indexes ( B*Tree and Bitmap), Cluster, hashing, Data block size, Parallel Execution, Star query, The optimizer, Using hints in queries, PL/SQL functions in SQL statements.

                    One way to improve the response time in DSS is to use Parallel execution. This feature enables multiple processes to simultaneously process a single SQL statement. By spreading the processing over many processes, Oracle can execute complex statements more quickly than if only a single server processed them. Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), clustered, or massively parallel systems gain the largest performance benefits from parallel execution. This is because operations can be effectivley spread among many CPUs on a single system.

                  11. Reconfigure systems on a temporary basis for particular needs.
                  12. Try and apply the previous two steps for a temporary basis, give me a break !!!

                5. Managing the Mixed Workload
                  1. Describe the features of Database Resource Manager
                  2. Limit the use of resources using Database Resource Manager

                6. Tuning with Oracle Expert
                  1. Describe the features of Oracle Expert

                7. Multithreaded Server Tunning Issues
                  1. Identify issues associated with managing users in a mutilthreaded server environment.
                  2. In a MTS environments,just as there is a SGA, there is also a User Global Area (UGA), which contains user session information, sort areas, and private SQL areas. Normally the default RDBMS instance ( also known as dedicated server) results in a one to one mapping of user processes to server processes.

                    With MTS, the UGA is moved up into the shared pool. The remaining process-specifc memory is reatined in the Process Global Area (PGA) and holds information that cannot be shared. In this way, the total amount of memory required in using MTS is not really more than the dedicated server, just redistributed. However, you have to increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE, To help size the UGA that is relocated to the SGA, use:

                    select sum(value)
                    
                    from v$SESSTAT SE, V$STATNAME SN
                    WHERE SN.NAME = 'max session memory'
                    AND SE.STATISTIC# = SN.STATISTIC#;

                    This yields the maximum amount of UGA session memory used since instance startup. You may wish to take samples of this result often , and then increment the SHARED_POOL_SIZE by this amount. From Oracle 8 you can use 'session uga memory max'

                  3. Diagnose and resolve performance issues with a multithreaded server processes
                  4. Configure the multithreaded server envioronment to optimize performance
                  5. With MTD you have some control over the distribution of server versus user memory. Two init.ora parameters that affect user memory are:

                      1. SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
                      2. CLOSE_CACHED_OPEN_CURSOR

                    The parameter SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS can be set to the expected maximum number of session cursors to be cached in the users memory area, as long as reparsing is kept low. This helps offload server memory requirements at the expense of increasing user memory. Optionally, set this parameter when statements are frequently reused.

                    The default setting for CLOSE_CACHE_OPEN_CURSOR is FALSE, meaning that cursors are not closed on COMMIT.Optionally set this to TRUE if SQL statements are rarely reused. Make sure these two parameters do not conflict, setting both to TRUE or FALSE seems to be the best approach.


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